Aktuell Forskning - Abstracts

Behandling av PMS
Behandling av huvudvärk
Spädbarn med kolik
Reflexologi ökar blodflödet i inre organ
Reflexologi lindrar symptom vid MS
Behandling av ångest och smärta hos cancerpatienter

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Reflexologi ökar blodflödet i inre organ (2 abstracts)     Innehållsförteckning

Originalets titel: Changes of renal blood flow during organ-associated foot reflexology measured by color Doppler sonography

Publicerad: Forsch Komplementarmed 1999 Jun;6(3):129-34. Artikeln är skriven på tyska

Författare: Sudmeier I, Bodner G, Egger I, Mur E, Ulmer H, Herold M.

Institution: Universitatsklinik fur Innere Medizin, Innsbruck, Austria.

Using colour Doppler sonography blood flow changes of the right kidney during foot reflexology were determined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised study. 32 healthy young adults (17 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the verum or placebo group. The verum group received foot reflexology at zones corresponding to the right kidney, the placebo group was treated on other foot zones. Before, during and after foot reflexology the blood flow of three vessels of the right kidney was measured using colour Doppler sonography. Systolic peak velocity and end diastolic peak velocity were measured in cm/s, and the resistive index, a parameter of the vascular resistance, was calculated. The resistive index in the verum group showed a highly significant decrease (p </= 0.001) during and an increase (p = 0.001) after foot reflexology. There was no difference between men and women and no difference between smokers and non-smokers. Verum and placebo group significantly differed concerning alterations of the resistive index both between the measuring points before versus during foot reflexology (p = 0.002) and those during versus after foot reflexology (p = 0.031). The significant decrease of the resistive index during foot reflexology in the verum group indicates a decrease of flow resistance in renal vessels and an increase of renal blood flow. These findings support the hypothesis that organ-associated foot reflexology is effective in changing renal blood flow during therapy.

Originalets titel: Influence of reflex zone therapy of the feet on intestinal blood flow measured by color Doppler sonography

Publicerad: Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2001 Apr;8(2):86-9. Artikeln är skriven på tyska

Författare: Mur E, Schmidseder J, Egger I, Bodner G, Eibl G, Hartig F, Pfeiffer KP, Herold M.

Institution: Universitatsklinik fur Innere Medizin, Innsbruck, Osterreich.

OBJECTIVE: An influence on organ-associated blood flow is considered as a possible mechanism of action of reflex zone massage of the feet (FRZM) therapy. In the present study we investigated whether changes in intestinal blood flow can be achieved by FRZM. Material and Methods: 32 healthy adults (19 women and 13 men) were randomly assigned to the treatment or the placebo group. Subjects of the treatment group received foot massage on the zones assigned to the intestines and those of the placebo group received massage on zones unrelated to the intestines. Before, during and after FRZM, the blood flow velocity, the peak systolic and the end diastolic velocities in the superior mesenteric artery as well as the resistive index as a parameter of vascular resistance were calculated. Results: During FRZM, in the subjects of the treatment group there was a significant reduction in the resistive index (p = 0.021), suggesting an increase in the blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery and the subordinate vascular system. In contrast, there were no significant changes in the resistive index in the subjects of the placebo group. Conclusion: The reduction in the resistive index observed in the treatment group supports the assumption that FRZM improves blood flow in the organs considered to be associated with the specific foot zones, at least during the therapy process.

Spädbarn med kolik     Innehållsförteckning

Originalets titel: Infants with colic. A heterogenous group possible to cure? Treatment by pediatric consultation followed by a study of the effect of zone therapy on incurable colic

Publicerad: Ugeskr Laeger 2001 Jul 2;163(27):3773-8. Artikeln är skriven på danska.

Författare: Bennedbaek O, Viktor J, Carlsen KS, Roed H, Vinding H, Lundbye-Christensen S.

Institution: Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Matematiske Fag.

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to investigate and treat infants with colic by conventional medicine followed by an investigation of the effect of reflexological treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigation was prospective, followed by a randomised, single-blind, double-controlled, prospective study of reflexological treatment with an interview and diary. Sixty-three infants aged 1-3 months referred by general practitioners with crying for > 90 minutes a day were given a paediatric examination and intervention. The cause of crying was discovered in 33 infants: Vitamin D (5), elimination of cow's milk protein (3), and anal stenosis (3); counselling on feeding, sleep, reduction of stimulation, and avoidance of passive smoking (22). Thirty infants without the benefit of paediatric consultation were randomised to three groups for a duration of two weeks: A: Presumed non-effective reflexological treatment vs B: Presumed effective reflexological treatment vs C: No treatment--only observation. The most important parameter was the number of crying hours over 24 hours. Cure was defined as crying for less than or equal to 30 minutes. RESULTS: Examination by the paediatrician: Thirty-three of 63 infants benefited with a reduction in crying of less than 90 minutes and 13 of these infants were cured. The randomised study: In group C (control), none of the patients was cured. In groups A and B (presumed non-effective reflexological treatment and presumed effective treatment), half the patients were cured, which was significantly better than in group C. There was no significant difference between groups A and B, but B seemed better than group A. B was significantly better than C. DISCUSSION: Infantile colic had a significant cure rate at paediatric consultation and the children who did not benefit from this intervention had a significantly better outcome after reflexological treatment than had the observation group. Further investigations in reflexological treatment in infants are recommended.

Behandling av huvudvärk     Innehållsförteckning

Originalets titel: An exploratory study of reflexological treatment for headache.

Publicerad: Altern Ther Health Med 1999 May;5(3):57-65

Författare: Launso L, Brendstrup E, Arnberg S.

Institution: Department of Social Pharmacy, Royal Danish School of Pharmacy, Copenhagen, Denmark.

CONTEXT: Headache is the most frequently reported symptom among Danish adults, and studies in various European countries indicate migraine headache prevalence rates similar to those in Denmark. OBJECTIVE: An exploratory study of reflexological treatment for headache was conducted from 1993 to 1994 to examine which patients with headache underwent a course of reflexological treatment, why patients sought reflexological treatment, what previous experience patients had with medication for headache, and what outcomes patients experienced from reflexological treatment. DESIGN: Prospective and exploratory study using random sampling and the following data collection methods: headache diaries, registration schemes for practitioners, questionnaires, and qualitative interviews. SETTING: Denmark. PATIENTS: 220 patients with migraine and/or tension headache. INTERVENTION: Patients were treated for a maximum of 6 months by 78 reflexologists systematically drawn from the membership lists of 5 alternative therapist associations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A diagnosis of each patient's type of headache at the outset of treatment was made by a consulting physician according to the International Headache Society Classification (1988). RESULTS: At 3-month follow-up, 81% of patients reported that they were helped by the treatments or were cured of their headache problems. Nineteen percent of those who had formerly taken drugs to control their headaches were able to stop medication support following participation in the study. CONCLUSIONS: Reflexological treatment seems to improve patients' general well-being, energy level, ability to interpret their own body signals, and ability to understand the reasons for headache. However, these relationships may be due to other factors in the treatment environment. Additional studies are necessary to determine the proximate cause of reflexology's therapeutic benefits.

Reflexologi lindrar symptom vid MS     Innehållsförteckning

Originalets titel: Reflexology treatment relieves symptoms of multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled study.

Publicerad: Mult Scler. 2003 Aug;9(4):356-61

Författare:Siev-Ner I, Gamus D, Lerner-Geva L, Achiron A

Institution: Complementary Medicine Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Rehabilitation, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of reflexology on symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) in a randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial. METHODS: Seventy-one MS patients were randomized to either study or control group, to receive an 11-week treatment. Reflexology treatment included manual pressure on specific points in the feet and massage of the calf area. The control group received nonspecific massage of the calf area. The intensity of paresthesias, urinary symptoms, muscle strength and spasticity was assessed in a masked fashion at the beginning of the study, after 1.5 months of treatment, end of study and at three months of follow-up. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients completed this study. Significant improvement in the differences in mean scores of paresthesias (P = 0.01), urinary symptoms (P = 0.03) and spasticity (P = 0.03) was detected in the reflexology group. Improvement with borderline significance was observed in the differences in mean scores of muscle strength between the reflexology group and the controls (P = 0.06). The improvement in the intensity of paresthesias remained significant at three months of follow-up (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Specific reflexology treatment was of benefit in alleviating motor; sensory and urinary symptoms in MS patients.


Bihåleinflammation     Innehållsförteckning

Originalets titel: Nasal irrigation for the alleviation of sinonasal symptoms.

Publicerad: Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001 Jul;125(1):44-8

Författare: Heatley DG, McConnell KE, Kille TL, Leverson GE.

Institution: Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI 53792-7375, USA. heatley@surgery.wisc.edu

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of nasal irrigation on sinonasal symptoms. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A total of 150 adult subjects with chronic sinusitis symptoms were recruited from the community and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: nasal irrigation with bulb syringe, nasal irrigation with nasal irrigation pot, or control treatment with reflexology massage. Groups 1 and 2 performed daily hypertonic saline irrigation with 1 device for 2 weeks and then with the other device for 2 weeks. Group 3 performed reflexology massage daily for 2 weeks. Prospective data collected included pretreatment Medical Outcomes Study Short Form, pretreatment and posttreatment Rhinosinusitis Outcomes Measure, daily medication use, subjective treatment efficacy, and preference of irrigation method. RESULTS: There was a significant and equivalent improvement in Rhinosinusitis Outcomes Measure 31 score after 2 weeks of intervention in each treatment group; 35% of subjects reported decreased use of sinus medication. CONCLUSION: Daily nasal irrigation using either a bulb syringe, nasal irrigation pot, and daily reflexology massage were equally efficacious and resulted in improvement in the symptoms of chronic sinusitis in over 70% of subjects. Medication usage was decreased in approximately one third of participants regardless of intervention.


Behandling av ångest och smärta hos cancerpatienter     Innehållsförteckning

Originalets titel: The effects of foot reflexology on anxiety and pain in patients with breast and lung cancer.

Publicerad: Oncol Nurs Forum 2000 Jan-Feb;27(1):67-72.
Comment in: Oncol Nurs Forum. 2001 Apr;28(3):445-6.

Författare: Stephenson NL, Weinrich SP, Tavakoli AS.

Institution: School of Nursing, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA. stephensonn@mail.ecu.edu

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To test the effects of foot reflexology on anxiety and pain in patients with breast and lung cancer. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental, pre/post, crossover. SETTING: A medical/oncology unit in a 314-bed hospital in the southeastern United States. SAMPLE: Twenty-three inpatients with breast or lung cancer. The majority of the sample were female, Caucasian, and 65 years or older; had 12 or fewer years of education and an annual income of $20,000 or more; and were receiving regularly scheduled opioids and adjuvant medications on the control and intervention day. METHODS: Procedures included an intervention condition (foot reflexology to both feet for 30 minutes total by a certified reflexologist) and a control condition for each patient (with at least a two-day break). No changes were made in patients' regular schedule or medications. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Anxiety and pain. FINDINGS: Following the foot reflexology intervention, patients with breast and lung cancer experienced a significant decrease in anxiety. One of three pain measures showed that patients with breast cancer experienced a significant decrease in pain. CONCLUSIONS: The significant decrease in anxiety observed in this sample of patients with breast and lung cancer following foot reflexology suggests that this may be a self-care approach to decrease anxiety in this patient population. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Professionals and lay people can be taught reflexology. Foot reflexology is an avenue for human touch, can be performed anywhere, requires no special equipment, is noninvasive, and does not interfere with patients' privacy.

Behandling av PMS    Innehållsförteckning

Originalets titel: Randomized Controlled Study of Premestrual Symptoms Treated With Ear, Hand, and Foot Reflexology

Publicerad: Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;82:902-11

Författare:Terry Oleson, PhD, and William Flocco

Institution: Division of Behavioral Medicine, California Graduate Institute

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether reflexology therapy - the application of manual pressure to reflex points on the ears, hands, and feet that somatotopically correspond to specific areas of the body - can significantly reduce premestrual symptoms compared to placebo treatment.
METHODS: Thirty-five women who complained of previous distress with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) were randomly assigned to be treated by ear, hand, and foot reflexology or to receive placebo reflexology. All subjects completed a daily diary, which monitored 38 premenstrual symptoms on a four pinit scale. Somatic and psychological indicators of premenstrual distress were recorded each day for 2 months before treatment, 2 months during reflexology, and for 2 months afterward. The reflexology sessions for both groups were provided by a trained reflexology therapist once a week for 8 weeks, and lasted 30 minutes each.
RESULTS: Analysis of variance for repeated measures demonstrated a significantly greater decrease in premenstrual symptoms for the women given the true reflexology treatment than for the women in the placebo group.
CONCLUSION: These clinical findings support the use of ear, hand, and foot reflexology for the treatment of PMS.